The geophysical surveying operations exploit the different elastic properties of the geological formations that constitute the ground in the reflection of the seismic waves generated by a source of energy placed on the surface. The waves travel deep into the geological strata; each geological discontinuity in the ground partially reflects the waves to the surface, depending on the different rocks’ elastic properties.
In the surface, the reflected vibration waves are detected by geophones that are laid along the seismic lines. The registered signals trace the geological horizons. The interpretation by mathematical models of the registered signals will allow for the identification of possible traps, and by the recent available technology development eventually identify the presence of hydrocarbons.